|United States City|
Cambridge Location in Massachusetts
Location of Cambridge in the United States
|Founded||1630 (390 years)|
|Embedded on||1636 (384 years)|
|Mayor||Marc C. McGovern|
|- land||16.55 km²|
|- water||1.86 km²|
|Population (2010)||105 162 inhabitants. (6 354.19 hab/km²)|
|Location of Cambridge in Middlesex County.|
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Boston metropolitan area. He was named in honor of the University of Cambridge, in England, an important center of Puritan Theology created by the city's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the most prominent universities in the world, Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Cambridge is one of Middlesex County Council (Lowell is the other).
According to the 2010 national census, the population is 105 162 inhabitants and the population density is 6 354.19 inhabitants/km². It's the fifth most populous city in the state. It has 47 291 homes, resulting in a density of 2 857.46 homes/km2.
A Cambridge resident is known as Cantabrigian.
The site for what later became Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was safely located above Boston Bay, which made it easy to defend against attacks from enemy ships. Furthermore, the water from the local source was so good that the local Native Americans believed it had medicinal properties. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Massachusetts official records show the name was written as Newe Towne in 1632. Located in the first instance between the Charles River and west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of the cities (including Boston, Dorchester, Watertown, and Weymouth), founded by about 700 puritan colonizers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the government of John Winthrop. The original village site is at the heart of what Harvard Square is today. The market where farmers brought their products from neighboring cities to sell survives to this day as the small park on the corner of John F. Kennedy (JFK) and Streets Winthrop, then on the verge of a salt marsh, which is now buried. The city included a much larger area than the current city, with several peripheral areas becoming independent cities over the years: Newton (originally Vilarejo Cambridge, then Newtown) in 1688, Lexington (Cambridge Farms) in 1712, and both West Cambridge (originally Menotomy) and Brighton (Pequena Cambridge) in 1807. A part of West Cambridge joined the new city of Belmont in 1859, and in the rest of West Cambridge it was renamed Arlington in 1867; Brighton was attached by Boston in 1874. At the end of the 19th century, several Cambridge schemes annexed to the city of Boston continued and were rejected.
In 1636, Harvard College was founded by the colony to the railway ministers and of the new city was chosen by his site by Thomas Dudley. In 1638, the name "Newe Towne" had "compacted by use in Newtowne." In May 1638, the name was changed to Cambridge, in honor of the university at Cambridge, England. The first president (Henry Dunster), the first benefactor (John Harvard), and the first teacher (Natanael Eaton) at Harvard University Cambridge were all former students, as was the decision of the then (and first) governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop took the signature of the document on the foundation of the city of Boston, which became known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. He was Governor Thomas Dudley, who, in 1650, signed the letter of creation of the company that still governs Harvard College.
Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles (13 km) along the Boston road, the colony's capital. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near Common and Harvard College, with farms and properties that comprise most of the city. Most of the inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan settlers, but there was also a small elite of illustrious Anglicans who were not involved in the village's life, who made their living from land, investments and trade, and lived in mansions along the Watertown Road (today Brattle Street, still known as the Tory Line). In 1775, George Washington came from Virginia to take command of inexperienced American volunteer soldiers camped at Cambridge today Common called the cradle of the United States Army. (Today's name near the Hotel Sheraton Commander refers to this event.) Most of the Tory properties were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which allowed Washington to run the British army outside Boston.
Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge began to grow rapidly, with the construction of the Boston West Bridge in 1792, which connected directly to Boston Cambridge, making it more necessary to travel eight miles (13 km) through the neck, Roxbury, and Brookline to cross the Charles River. The second bridge, the Channel Bridge, inaugurated in 1809, along with the new Middlesex Channel. The new bridges and roads did what used to be farms and swamps in prime industrial and residential districts.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, when the country was given a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to the famous Fireside Poets, so-called because his poems, often read out loud by families in front of their fires at night. On their day, Fireside Poets-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, were as popular and influential as rock stars are today.
Soon after, turnpikes were built: Turnpike Cambridge and Concord (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the Turnpike Middlesex (Hampshire St. and North-West Massachusetts Ave of Porter Square.), and which are Cambridge today, the main and Harvard Street have been roads to connect several Cambridge areas to the bridges. In addition, railway roads crossed in the city during the same period, leading to the development of Porter Square, as well as the creation of the neighboring city of Somerville from the previously rural parts of Charlestown.
Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846. This was despite the visible tensions between the Orient Cambridge, Cambridgeport, and Cambridge Velho that resulted from differences in the culture of each region, the sources of income, and the national origins of the inhabitants. The city mall started moving in Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the center of the city around this time. Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took over a large part of his development of the suburban bonde character along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial-class districts focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing being built on old properties in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and high-class housing close to Harvard University and the smaller hills city. The arrival of the railroad to the north and Cambridge Cambridge northwest, then led to three major changes in the city:. The development of massive, sunny stores between Massachusetts Ave, Ave Concord. and Alewife Brook, the cutting-off ice industry by Frederic Tudor at Fresh Pond; and the sculpture of the latter's properties in residential subdivisions to provide housing for the thousands of immigrants arriving to work in the new industries.
For many years, the largest employer in the city was the New England Glass Company, founded in 1818. In the mid-nineteenth century, it was the largest and most modern glass factory in the world. In 1888, all production was transferred, by Edward Drummond Libbey, to Toledo, Ohio, where it continues to this day under the name of Owens Illinois. Flint glass with a heavy lead content, produced by this company, is valued by antique collectors from glass. There's no one in the public exhibition at Cambridge, but there's a big collection at Toledo Art Museum. Amongst the largest companies located in Cambridge was the company of the Carter Ink Company, whose long adorned neon signal to the Charles River and which was for many years the largest paint manufacturer in the world.
In 1920, Cambridge was one of the main industrial cities in New England, with about 120,000 residents. As industry in New England began to decline during the Great Depression and World War II, Cambridge lost a lot of its industrial base. He also began the transition to be an intellectual, rather than an industrial center. Harvard University has always been important in the city (both as a landlord and as an institution), but has started to play a more dominant role in the life of the city and culture. In addition, the movement of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston in 1912 guaranteed Cambridge status as an intellectual center in the United States.
After the 1950s, the city's population began to decline slowly, as families tend to be replaced by single people and young couples. The 1980s brought a wave of high-tech startups, software creation, such as Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3, and advanced computers, but many of these companies went into decline with the fall of the mini-computer and DOS-based systems. However, the city remains home to many start-up companies as well as a prosperous biotechnology industry. Until the end of the 20th century, Cambridge had one of the most expensive real estate markets in the Northeast of the United States.
While maintaining diversity in both class, race and age, it became more difficult for those who grew up in the city to be able to afford to stay. The end of rent control in 1994 took many Cambridge tenants to move to housing that was more accessible, in Somerville and other communities. In 2005, a reassessment of residential property values resulted in a disproportionate number of homes owned by unwealthy people jumping in value relative to other homes, with hundreds having their property tax increased by more than 100%, forcing many homeowners in Cambridge to move elsewhere. 
Since 2006, Cambridge mix of comfort and proximity to Boston has kept housing prices relatively stable.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Cambridge has a total area of 7.1 square miles (18 km²), of which 6.4 square miles (17 km²) of it is the land and 0.7 square kilometers (1.8 km²) of it (9.82%) is the water.
- Border municipalities
Cambridge is located in eastern Massachusetts, bounded by:
the city of Boston south (across the river Charles) and east the city of Somerville, north of the city of Arlington to the north-west the city of Belmont and the city of Watertown to the west The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of Somerville passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the MBTA Red Line. Some of the main squares, Inman, Porter, and to a lesser extent Harvard, are very close to the city line, as are Union Somerville and Davis Square.
Cambridge has been called "City of Squares" by some,   how most of his commercial districts are street crossings known as main squares. Each one of the squares works like a sort of neighborhood center. These include: Kendall Square, formed by the junction of Broadway, main street, and Third Street, is also known as Square Technology, a name shared with a lab-building office in the neighborhood. Only over the Longfellow Boston Bridge, at the far east of the MIT campus, is served by Kendall / MIT station on the MBTA Red Line subway. Most of the major Cambridge towers in the office are located here, giving the area a sense of office park. The flourishing biotechnology industry has grown around this area. The complex One Kendall Square is nearby, but, confusingly, not really in Kendall Square. In addition, the Cambridge Center is located here, not in the actual Cambridge center. Central Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and West Avenue, is well known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants. Recently, in the 1990s, it was quite run-down, which went through a controversial gentrification over the last few years (along with the development of the next University Park at MIT), and continues to grow more expensive. It is served by the Central Station of the MBTA Red Line subway. Lafayette Square, made up of the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street and Main Street, is considered to be part of the area Central Square. Cambridgeport is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street.
Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the primary site of Harvard University, and it's a Cambridge commercial area. It's served by a Red Line station. Harvard Square was originally the north-west completion of the Red Line and a large tram transfer point that also operated in a tunnel that short is still a bus terminal, although the area under the Square was drastically reconfigured in the 1980s, when the Red Line was extended. Harvard Square area includes Brattle Square and Eliot Square. A short distance from the square is Common Cambridge, while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Massachusetts Avenue is known as Agassiz in honor of the famous scientist Louis Agassiz. Porter Square, about a mile north of Massachusetts Avenue of Harvard Square, is formed by the junction of Massachusetts and Somerville Avenues, and includes part of the city of Somerville. It is served by Porter Station Square, a housing complex of a Red Line stop and Fitchburg Line stop rail transport. Lesley University Hall University and Porter campus are located in Porter Square.
Inman Square at the Cambridge and Hampshire streets at Mid-Cambridge. Inman Square is home to many different restaurants, bars, music venues and boutiques. The funk street scene still has some urban gift, but recently dressed with Victorian public lighting, seats and bus stops. A new community park has been set up and is a favorite place to enjoy a little food to travel from restaurants and ice cream.
Lechmere Square, at the Cambridge junction and the streets First, next to the Galleria CambridgeSide shopping mall. Perhaps better known as the end of the northern subway of the MBTA Green Line at Lechmere Station.
Residential districts (map) at the Cambridge border, but are not defined by squares. These include: East Cambridge (Area 1) is limited north by the Somerville border, east by the Charles river, south by Broadway and Main Street, and west by the Railroad Grand Junction tracks. Includes NorthPoint development.
MIT Campus (Area 2) is bounded north by Broadway, south and east by the Charles river, and west by the Railroad Grand Junction tracks. Wellington-Harrington (Area 3) is limited north by the Somerville border in the south and west by Hampshire Street and east by the Grand Junction Rail.
Area 4 is limited north by Hampshire Street, south with Massachusetts Avenue, west by Prospect Street, and east by Grand Junction Rail. Area 4 residents often refer to their neighborhood simply as "The Door," and refer to the Cambridgeport and Riverside area as "The Coast." Cambridgeport (Area 5) is limited north by Massachusetts Avenue, south by the river Charles, west by the river Street, and east by the Railroad Grand Junction. Mid-Cambridge (Area 6) is limited north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and the Somerville border, south with Massachusetts Avenue, west by Peabody Street, and east by Prospect Street. Riverside (Area 7), an area sometimes referred to as "The Coast", is limited north by Massachusetts Avenue, south by the Charles River, west by JFK Street, and east by River Street. Agassiz (Harvard Norte) (Area 8) is limited north by the Somerville border in the south and east by Kirkland Street and in the west of Massachusetts Avenue. Peabody (Area 9) is limited north by the railway line, south by Concord Street, west by the railway line, and east by Massachusetts Avenue. The sub-district Avon Colina is composed of higher elevations bounded by the Upland road, Raymond Street, Lineu Street and Massachusetts Avenue.
Brattle area / West Cambridge (Area 10) is limited north by Concord Avenida and Rua Jardim, south by the Charles River and Watertown border, west by the Fresh Pond and the Branch Collins Library, and east by JFK Street. It includes the districts of sub-Brattle Street (formerly Tory Row) and Vila Huron. North Cambridge (Area 11) is limited north by Arlington and Somerville borders, south by railway line, west by the Belmont border, and east by the Somerville border. Cambridge Highlands (Area 12) is bounded north and east by the railway line, south by the Fresh Pond, and west by the Belmont border. Strawberry Hill (Area 13) is limited north by the Fresh Pond, south by the Watertown border, west by the Belmont border, and east by the railway line.
Parks and outdoor
Consisting basically of densely built residential space, Cambridge has no significant extensions in public parks. This is partly compensated, however, for the easy access to open space on university campuses, including Harvard Yard and Great Lawn at MIT, as well as the considerable open space of Mount Auburn Cemetery. On the western edge of Cambridge, the cemetery is well known as the garden cemetery in the first place, for its illustrious inhabitants, for its excellent landscape (the oldest planned landscape in the country), and as a first-line herb. Although known as a Cambridge milestone, much of the cemetery is within Watertown limits.  It is also a significant Bird Area (IBA) in the Boston metropolitan area. Public park includes the spanning along the Charles River, which mirrors its fellow Boston, Cambridge Common, a busy park and public history immediately adjacent to Harvard campus, and the Alewife Reserve Brook and Fresh Pond in the western part of the city.
According to the 2000 census , there were 101,355 people, 42,615 households, and 17,599 families living in the city. The population density was 15,766.1 people per square mile (6,086.1 / km²), making Cambridge the fifth most densely populated city in the United States  and the second most densely populated city in Massachusetts behind Somerville neighboring.  There were 44,725 housing units at an average density of 6,957.1 per square mile (2,685.6 / km²). The racial composition of the city was 68.10% White, Black 11.92% or African Americans, 0.29% Native Americans, 11.88% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islands, 3.19% other races, and 4.56% from two or more races. 7.36% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. This one is very close to the average racial demographics of the United States as a whole, although Cambridge has Asians significantly more than the average, and Hispanics less and Caucasian. 11.0% were from Irish, English 7.2%, 6.9% Italian, 5.5% Western Indies and 5.3% from German Census 2000. 69.4% spoke English, Spanish 6.9%, 3.2% Chinese or Mandarin, 3.0% Portuguese, 2.9% French Creole, French 2.3%, 1.5% Korea, and 1.0% Italian as its first language. There were 42,615 homes, of which 17.6% had children under the age of 18 who live with them, 29.1% were married couples who live together, 9.7% had a female owner with no gift from their husband, and 58.7% were non-families. 41.4 percent of all homes were made by physical people and 9.2 percent had someone live alone who was 65 years old or older. The average size of the house was 2.03 and the average size of the family was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out at 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% 18-24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% 45-64, and 9.2% were 65 years of age or older. The average age was 30. For every 100 women, there were 96.1 men. For every 100 women of 18 years, there were 94.7 men. The median income for a house in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59.423 (these values rose to $58,457 and $79,533, respectively, as an estimate of 2007 ). The males had a median income of $43,825 against $38,489 for females. The city's per capita income was $31,156. Around 8.7% of the families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of children under 18 and 12.9% of those aged 65 and over. Cambridge was classified as one of the most liberal cities in the United States.  Its inhabitants jokingly refer to it as the People's Republic of Cambridge.  His fiscal year 2007 residential property tax rate, $7.48 for $1,000 in value, is one of the lowest in Massachusetts. Cambridge has the highest possible credit rating for securities, AAA, with all three Street wall rating agencies.  Cambridge is known for its diverse population, both racially and economically. Residents, known as Cantabrigians reach, from MIT tributary and Harvard professors to immigrants. The first legal applications in the United States for same-sex marriage licenses were issued to the Cambridge City Hall.  Cambridge is also the cradle of Thai king Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), who is the world's largest reigning monarch at the age of 82 (2010), as well as the largest reigning monarch in Thai history. He is also the first king of a foreign country to be born in the United States.
Cambridge is part of the eighth Massachusetts congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Capuano, elected in 1998. Senior member of the US Senate is Democrat John Kerry, elected in 1984. Junior member of the state is Republican Scott Brown, elected in 2010 to fill the vacancy caused by long-standing death of Democratic senator Ted Kennedy. The Governor of Massachusetts is a Democrat Deval Patrick, elected in 2006 and re-elected in 2010. At the state level, Cambridge is represented in six districts in the Massachusetts House of Representatives: Middlesex 24 (comprising parts of Belmont and Arlington), Middlesex Days 25 and 26 (the latter including a portion of Somerville), Middlesex 29 (which includes a small part of Watertown), and Eighth and Ninth Suffolk (both parts including the city of Boston). The city is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as part of the district's "First Suffolk and Middlesex" (this contains pieces from Boston, Revere and Winthrop each in Suffolk County), the district's "Middlesex, Suffolk and Essex", which includes Everett and Somerville, with Boston, Chelsea, and Suffolk's Revere, and in Essex, and from the "Second Suffolk and Middlesex" district, containing parts of the city of Boston in Suffolk County, and Cambridge, Belmont and Watertown in Middlesex County . ] In addition to the Cambridge Department Police, the city is patrolled by Barracks Quinta (Brighton) of Massachusetts State Police Troop H.  Due, however, to proximity, the city also has practices of functional cooperation with the fourth (Boston Barracks) H Troop, as well. 
Cambridge has a city government run by a mayor and nine members of the City Hall. There is also a six-member school committee, which works alongside the superintendent of public schools. The councilors who are members of the commission and the school are elected every two years using the single transferable vote (STV) of the system.  Since the dissolution of the City of New York Community School Councils in 2002, the Cambridge Council is now uncommon and the only body that regulates in the United States still uses VTS.  since a laborious process that took several days to complete the hand, the screening of votes and calculations to determine the result of the elections are now carried out quickly by computer, then the votes were digitized. The mayor is elected by the councilors from among themselves, and serves as president of the Municipal Council of Meetings. The mayor is also part of the School Committee. However, the mayor is not the Chief Executive of the city. Instead, the City Manager, who is appointed by the City Council, serves in this capacity. In the form of the city of E Government Plan, the city council does not have the power to nominate or dismiss the municipal officials who are under the direction of the city manager. The city council and its individual members are also prohibited from giving orders to any subordinate of the city manager.  At present, Robert W. Healy is the City Manager, he has acted in position since 1981. The city council consists of:
- Leland Cheung
- Henrietta Davis
- Marjorie C. Decker
- Craig A Kelley
- David Maher
- Kenneth Reeves
- Sam Seidel
- And... Denise Simmons
- Timothy J. Toomey, Jr.
Cambridge Public Schools manage public schools.
- "GCT-PH1 - Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State — Place and (in selected states) County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau. having been consulted on 21 September 2011
- "GCT-PH1-R - Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population): 2000 — Geography: State — County — State — Place and (in selected states) County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau. having been consulted on 21 September 2011
- Official site (in English)
- Statistics, maps and other information about Cambridge on city-data.com